Glowing reports of the abundant water and other natural resources in the Upper Mississippi River region led fur traders, early settlers, and military surveyors, transported in keelboats, to follow the river Mississippi River north. However, the public holds the real power and everything that happens on the Upper Mississippi River is because people advocate to make change happen. The barge transportation and agriculture industries have lobbied in the late 20th and early 21st centuries for a multi-billion dollar project to upgrade the aging lock and dam system (Figure 18). The confluence of these two great rivers is located at Spanish Lake and north of the St. Louis, Missouri [1]. Woodland mounds at Effigy Mounds Park are constructed in shapes of bear, birds, turtle, panther and other animals and are also found from northeast Iowa and southwest Wisconsin and north along the Upper Mississippi River. Figure 10. Bereits seit ihrem Zusammentreffen im Vorjahr führten … On June 9, 2015 the USACE officially closed the lock at upper St. Anthony Falls (Figure 24 and Figure 25), the northernmost (together with the one at the lower St. Anthony Falls) of the Mississippi River system’s 29 locks [12]. The Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto, commander of the first European expedition to penetrate to the river, had high hopes of plundering the southern tribes. 2.4. The Upper Mississippi from below upper and lower St. Anthony Lock and Dams are in Minneapolis and downstream to St. Paul. If the ancient Mississippi River had not re-aligned [6] and that line had been extended into current Illinois area between the Illinois River and Mississippi River. The locks provide 123 m of lift. The area, left unglaciated at that ice age’s height, was not smoothed out or covered over by previous geological processes. The climate and soils of the Willamette Valley south of Portland, Oregon are well suited to growing wine grapes. The primary reason for damming the river was to facilitate barge transportation (Figure 17). The Upper Mississippi River flows approximately 2000 km from Lake Itasca, Minnesota to Cairo, Illinois where it is confluences with the Ohio River to form the Lower Mississippi River. Congress will have the final say in closing Lock and Dam No. Figure 4. The wagon tracks from thousands of pioneers traveling west on the Oregon Trail in Nebraska are still visible in the bedrock. Downriver the Illinois tribe had established prosperous agricultural communities. The ancient Mississippi River was eventually blocked by the Wisconsian glacier and the terminal moraine [4] blocking the drainage with debris about 12,000 to 15,000 years ago. Agricultural runoff, including sediment and excessive nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and chemicals from agricultural and industrial sources continue to threaten the river resources. that the Mississippi River and the Yukon River. In the spring of 1804 Lewis and Clark started their trip up the Missouri River, a tributary of the Upper Mississippi River in an attempt to explore the Missouri River and find a water route to the Pacific Ocean [8] [9]. A riverboat is a watercraft designed for inland navigation on lakes , rivers , and artificial waterways . The St. Anthony Falls would be a potential erosion hazard if the river was returned to the natural conditions. Tug boat and barges locking through Melvin Price Lock and Dam on the lower Mississippi River near St. Louis. 2.5. A number of advancements in the late 20th Century would bring the river transportation industry back to life. Map by Mic Greenberg. However, before the glacial periods the ancient Mississippi River passed much farther to the east. Dam Removal from North American Great Rivers. Their relative speed and ability to travel against the current reduced the time and expense of shipping. Historically the ancient Mississippi River entered Illinois south of Davenport, Iowa and flowed east into the valley where the Hennepin Canal was later dug (Figure 11). The steamboats brought an era of unprecedented prosperity to the river. Photograph was taken by Lois Wright Morton. The dams regulate water levels for the Upper Mississippi River, and also play a major part in regulating levels on the lower Mississippi River. In 1805–06 the pioneer expedition of U.S. Army officer Zebulon Montgomery Pike struggled to within 80 miles (130 km) of the river’s source, and in 1832 Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, an Indian agent for the U.S. government, identified and named Lake Itasca (from the Latin veritas caput, “true head”) as the Mississippi’s starting point. Figure 6. Town after town sprang up, dependent on the regular arrival of packet boats bringing mail and passengers or freight boats that took on local produce and left off manufactured goods. As of 2019, there are no funded plans to replace any of the Upper Mississippi River locks and dams but that could change if U.S. congress passes an Infrastructure bill which could include waterway infrastructure in addition to roads, bridges, airports and railroads. The latter won by dint of stripping out all unnecessary superstructure and taking on extra fuel supplies from tenders while steaming upriver at full speed. Minneapolis used the hydropower from the Mississippi River to electrify city businesses and homes. The agricultural companies get their products to market by trucks, rail and barges but prefer a mixture of all three modes of transportation in part to maintain healthy competition and keep shipping costs down. The torch of exploration also passed to the Americans after the Louisiana Purchase. Mill produced more than 17,000 barrels of flour per day [11] . Various environmental groups have suggested that the dams and the locks and dam systems, used to provide year around navigation on the Upper Mississippi River, are not economical. The landscape and geological resources of the Upper Mississippi River have contributed to the successful water resource and economic development of a historically rich region in North America since the 1830s. In 1866, Congress approved the first of four navigation projects [2]. Photograph was taken by Lois Wright Morton. On it they paddled their cottonwood dugouts and their bark canoes, and from it they took the fish that was a mainstay of their diet. Published with copyright permission from the Book Editor of the Soil and Water Conservation Society [1]. Figure 26. This was accomplished primarily by constructing canals with navigation locks to bypass the De Moines Rapids near Keokuk, Iowa and the Rock Island Rapids between Rock Island and Moline, Illinois. With the invention of the electric light, St. Anthony Falls was soon harnessed for electricity to power street lights, street cars, and allowed industries to grow even when they were not located on the banks of the river. There is need for systematic investments in routine maintenance and repairs as well as close monitoring and assessment of locks and dams to pre-empt future failure (Figure 31). The public investment for water and waterway improvements is being considered in the current congressional infrastructure bill. The Virginia opened a new era of transportation on the Upper Mississippi River. These Environmental, Conservation and Save the River groups are attempting to mitigate the historic highest and best use of the Mississippi River and adjacent watershed, navigation, and economic development, by having the urban river restored to the natural state. The border between these two states was set at the 40 degree 35 minute latitude line. Lewis oversees construction of big keelboat in Pittsburgh, then takes it down Ohio River, picking up Clark and some recruits along the way. The Missouri river flows from the Rocky Mountains of western Montana southeast to the confluence with the Mississippi River and drains a 14.4 million ha semi-arid watershed. Map by Mic Greenberg. About 60 percent of U.S. grain exports travel down the Mississippi River to terminals in Louisiana where corn and soybeans are loaded onto ocean going ships headed to foreign markets. 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